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The Pella curse tablet , 4th century B. Binding spell, 4th century B. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. April Learn how and when to remove this template message A body of idiomatic words has been assembled from ancient sources, mainly from coin inscriptions, and from the 5th century lexicon of Hesychius of Alexandria , amounting to about words and proper names, though the number of considered words sometimes differs from scholar to scholar. The majority of these words can be confidently assigned to Greek albeit some words would appear to reflect a dialectal form of Greek. There are, however, a number of words that are not easily identifiable as Greek and reveal, for example, voiced stops where Greek shows voiceless aspirates. Finally, a Phrygian borrowing is highly possible if we think of the famous Gardens of Midas , where roses grow of themselves see Herodotus 8. Both the object and the word [are] Macedonian.


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Macedonian Armies after Alexander BC (Men-at-Arms) [Nicholas Sekunda, Peter Dennis] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The death of Alexander the Great in BC threw the Macedonians into confusion; there was no capable heir.

This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus’ first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon “in August of ” [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press, , , , p.

Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia” [Dividing the Spoils, Oxford, , p. While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, sometimes older analyses are later vindicated. As recounted above , Seleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos. With Babylon secure, he was able to take control of the vast Iranian hinterland, the geographical bulk of Alexander’s Empire.

However, Seleucus leaves India to the growing power of the Mauryas , and was compensated with war elephants that he then began to breed himself. Having defeated and killed Antigonus and Lysimachus , Seleucus was about to add Thrace to his kingdom when, stepping out of the boat in Europe, he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, whom he had taken in as a refugee from his father, Ptolemy I. Ceraunus is also said to have killed Seleucus while they were hunting together near Lysmacheia, which had been Lysimachus’ capital on the Gallipoli peninsula.

Ceraunus claimed the throne of Thrace and Macedon, while the rest of Seleucus’ domain passed to his half-Iranian son Antiochus. The capital of the kingdom, Seleucia, founded on the Tigris, began to replace Babylon as the metropolitan city of the region, but it did not achieve the historical significance and permanence of Alexandria in Egypt.

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Visit Website When Alexander was 13, Philip called on the great philosopher Aristotle to tutor his son. Visit Website Alexander was just 16 when Philip went to battle the Byzantiums and left him in charge of Macedonia. Alexander put his vigor and bravery on display, and his cavalry decimated the Band of Thebes. Alexander Becomes King In B. Just 20 years old, Alexander claimed the Macedonian throne and killed his rivals before they could challenge his sovereignty.

He also quashed rebellions for independence in northern Greece. Alexander appointed the general Antipater as regent and headed for Persia with his army.


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Description[ edit ] Peltasts carried a crescent-shaped wicker shield called a pelte Latin: According to Aristotle , the pelte was rimless and covered in goat or sheep skin. Some literary sources imply that the shield could be round, but in art it is usually shown as crescent-shaped. It also appears in Scythian art and may have been a common type in Central Europe.

The shield could be carried with a central strap and a hand grip near the rim or with just a central hand-grip. It may also have had a carrying strap or baldric as Thracian peltasts slung their shields on their backs when evading the enemy. Peltasts’ weapons consisted of several javelins akontia , which may have had throwing straps to allow more force to be applied to a throw.

A peltast with the whole of his panoply. Ancient Greek red-figure kylix. In the Archaic period, the Greek martial tradition had been focused almost exclusively on the heavy infantry, or hoplites. The style of fighting used by peltasts originated in Thrace and the first Greek peltasts were recruited from the Greek cities of the Thracian coast. They are generally depicted on vases and in other images as wearing the typical Thracian costume, which includes the distinctive Phrygian cap made of fox-skin and with ear flaps.

They also usually wear a patterned tunic, fawnskin boots and a long cloak, called a zeira, decorated with a bright, geometric, pattern. However, many mercenary peltasts were probably recruited in Greece.

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Researchers are hoping that the graves are associated with the early Macedonian kings. The tombs were found at Vergina, a town in Northern Greece identified as Aegae Aigai – the first capital of the Macedonians. The town became internationally famous in , when the Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos unearthed the burial site of the kings of Macedon, including the tomb of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great. The unplundered tomb dating from BC, displayed the golden larnax with the star symbol of the Macedonian kings, known from Macedonian shields and coins, decorating its cover: Inside the larnax were found human remains covered with a golden wreath of oak leaves.

About 99% of the roughly 6, Macedonian-period inscriptions discovered by archaeologists were written in the Greek language, using the Greek alphabet. The Pella curse tablet, a text written in a distinct Doric Greek dialect, found in and dated to between mid to early 4th century BC, has been forwarded as an argument that the ancient Macedonian language was a dialect of North-Western.

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Rape of Persephone By: Kayla Kandzorra The ancient city of Aigai, now known as modern Vergina, is located in Imathia, 75 km from Thessaloniki. According to oral tales, the city was founded by Perdiccas I when the Macedonians of the Argive migrates north over the plain of Emathia. However, the site was first inhabited during the Early Iron Age c. Aigai was the first ancient capital and cemetery of Macedonian kings, dating back to the 4th century BCE.

Macedon, Thrace and the European Coasts of the Euxine. In addition to the numerous special monographs on the coins of various Macedonian and Thracian cities and kings, which are to be found in the volumes of the Numismatic Chronicle, the Revue numismatique, the Zeitschrift für Numismatik and other periodicals, the following are some of the more important works to which the student of the.

You already rate this. The tomb of Stavroupolis is the largest, best preserved and most impressive Macedonian tomb of Thrace. Located south of the city, in a short distance from the road that leads to Komnina. Based on architectural form and the few findings that were within the , dating from the first half of the 2nd century BC. Likely to be associated with a settlement, located meters south, in position of Mytikas Komninon, and had a great life, from the Early Iron Age 9th-8th century BC until the The monument has all the basic architectural elements that characterize the Macedonian tombs.

It”s underground, built and consists of street, hall and chamber, which is covered with arches. The tomb was plundered and the doors of broken. Inside there were only two small gold rings, a small golden figurine vote and fragments, belonging to three Cupids and two female figures.


He was assassinated in B. Alexander The Great Alexander the Great was known as charismatic, ruthless, brilliant and bloodthirsty. His thirteen-year reign as king of Macedonia changed the course of both European and Asian history. He quickly harnessed the military forces of the Hellenic League, assembling an army of more than 43, infantry and 5, cavalry. In one long military campaign that lasted 11 years, he conquered the Persian Empire , making Macedonia the largest, most powerful empire in the world.

Hellenistic age: Hellenistic age, in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, the period between the death of Alexander the Great in bce and the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 bce. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half .

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Macedonian phalanx

For the moment Antipater was confirmed in authority in Macedon and Greece. At Babylon power was shared by two senior officers, Perdiccas c. His generals had to be content with the office of governor. For almost 10 years he had been governing Phrygia and had shown himself a brave soldier and competent administrator. His firmness and tact were popular with the Greek cities. Of the generals in Babylon, it was Ptolemy c.

The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies. Phalanxes remained dominant on battlefields throughout the Hellenistic period, although wars had developed into more protracted operations generally involving sieges and naval combat as much as pitched battles, until they were.

It was established in and it was a separate municipality until , when it was merged with Veroia, another city dating back to BC. Vergina is best known as the site of ancient Aigai, the first capital of Macedon. Aigai has been awarded UNESCO World Heritage Site status as “an exceptional testimony to a significant development in European civilization, at the transition from classical city-state to the imperial structure of the Hellenistic and Roman periods”.

It is also the site of an extensive royal palace and of many rich ancient tombs. The objects and paintings found in the tombs at Vergina are of extraordinarily high quality and historical importance. A museum now contains Philip’s tomb and a new museum is being constructed for the palace and other finds. Pella, located only 76 km 47 mi north of Vergina is another ancient city, best known as the second historical capital of the ancient kingdom of Macedon in the time of Alexander the Great.

In antiquity, Pella was a strategic port connected to the Thermaic Gulf by a navigable inlet, but the harbour and gulf have since silted up, leaving the site landlocked. Pella is first mentioned by Herodotus of Halicarnassus in relation to Xerxes’ campaign and by Thucydides in relation to Macedonian expansion and the war against Sitalces, the king of the Thracians. Pella was probably built as the capital of the kingdom by Archelaus I, replacing the older palace-city of Aigai, although there appears to be some possibility that it may have been created by Amyntas.

On the site of the ancient city is the Archaeological Museum of Pella.

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These icons are unlike any others previously known, duplicated by using a mould and standardised painting. The figures are roughly 30 or 31 centimeters high, roughly 28 centimeters wide, and 4 centimeters thick. Inscriptions and signatures are written in Latin, with beautifully modelled letters, and the saints are presented without auras.

The most frequent illustrations are those of Archangel Michael with his wings folded and that of St. Theodore on a horse, dressed in a uniform of a Byzantine soldier. The cross of Emperor Constantine is presented on a number of icons, as well as symbolic animals and floral motifs.

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Fresco of an ancient Macedonian soldier wielding a spear and wearing a cap , from the tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki , Greece. Philip II spent much of his youth as a hostage at Thebes , where he studied under the renowned general Epaminondas , whose reforms were the basis for the phalanx. Phalangites were professional soldiers, and were among the first troops ever to be drilled, thereby allowing them to execute complex maneuvers well beyond the reach of most other armies.

They fought packed in a close rectangular formation, usually eight men deep, with a leader at the head of each column and a secondary leader in the middle, so that the back rows could move off to the sides if more frontage was needed. Before a battle the sarissa were carried in two pieces and then slid together when they were being used. At close range such large weapons were of little use, but an intact phalanx could easily keep its enemies at a distance; the weapons of the first five rows of men all projected beyond the front of the formation, so that there were more spearpoints than available targets at any given time.

Men in rows behind the initial five angled their spears at a 45 degree angle in an attempt to ward off arrows or other projectiles. Formation[ edit ] The phalanx consisted of a line-up of several battalion blocks called syntagmata, each of its 16 files lochoi numbering 16 men, for a total of in each unit. Each syntagma was commanded by a syntagmatarch, who – together with his subordinate officers – would form the first row of each block.

The Macedonian cavalry fought in wedge formation and was almost always stationed on the far right; after these broke through the enemy lines they were followed by the hypaspists , elite infantrymen who served as the king ‘s bodyguard, and then the phalanx proper.

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